Addiction, Self-determination, Flow, Mindfulness, Culture, Emotional Intelligence, and Human Bonding


Addiction, Self-determination, Flow, Mindfulness, Culture, Emotional Intelligence, and Human Bonding

What are the components of addiction? why is addiction less desirable? and what aptitudes help us to avoid addiction?

“Let’s Turn the conversation towards Efficiency and Away from Morals”

The Psychobiological and Relational causes of undesired, addictive, and compulsory behavior:

Flow (peak experience) – Humans are most fulfilled when: Goals are clear, there is regular feedback concerning progress towards the goal, and you have the aptitudes necessary to make the challenge at the sweet spot between too hard (anxiety) and too easy (boredom).

  • Implications – Many electronic devices contain software that was developed to create a sense of flow. This creates a radical craving to engage with the software.


  • Solution – We need to ensure public access to ‘flow’ promoting activities that increase biological, relational, and existential wellness. Historically this includes extracurricular activities such as the arts and sport. Self-discipline with also be necessary – such as not having your cell phone at dinner or while on hikes etc.

Implicit System Conditioning – Most human emotions, thoughts, and behaviors are controlled by the implicit system. Our implicit system is evolutionarily older and significantly faster (more intelligent) then our intentional and rational explicit system. This system is adaptive – ex. you couldn’t drive a car with you explicit system.

It is very important to note that most interventions in the past have focused entirely on an explicit override of the implicit system – for example, we attempt to ‘rationalize’ away from a person’s automatic emotional response to stimuli. Unfortunately, this is not how the brain works (If I give you a rational explanation for why something ‘isn’t’ disgusting this will have no impact on your automatic disgust response).

  • Implication – Most of us have been primed to have automatic behavioral responses (towards a vice) in response to various emotions or environmental stimuli. example of stimuli that often lead to drinking: anxiety (emotion) or watching a sporting event (environmental).


  • Solution – We can set up our environments which allow a mindful reflection on our emotional and somatic realities so that we can our observe our desired impulses, emotions, and sensations with calm attention and without action. We then can learn to feel our feelings without reacting automatically to them. Increasing our ability to tolerate intense emotional experiences will have a positive impact on our ability to avoid the compulsory behavior.

Brain wiring and neurotransmitters – there is some overlap here with the implicit system. “What fires together wires together” Experiences that happen together can wire together – this creates predictable emotional reactions to stimuli and can create associates that are not necessarily rational. 

Neurotransmitters help to control our psychological wellness – deficits and surpluses create issues ranging from depression to mania to attention issues to psychosis etc. Adding substances to a developing mind (or a developed mind) can have unpredictable effects on our neural chemistry. Additionally, substances can impact the brain’s ability to properly uptake, release, and create neurotransmitters – which then leads to deficits or surpluses.

  • Implications – Substances such as ecstasy have been shown to dramatically impact the production of important neurotransmitters.
  • Solutions – Modeling and appropriate structure – We can ensure that we are modeling healthy relationships (including abstinence when necessary) with behaviors that can be unhealthy for our biology. We also should have regular access to nutritional items that promote a healthy biology and a sense of enjoyment.

Human Bonding and Attachment – Many vices (especially substances) impact or interact with the brain area responsible for human bonding and attachment. This means that instead of seeking out a secure relationship with another human – the substance is used (ineffectively) as the relational surrogate. This often leads to isolating behaviors – which leads to dysregulation and depression – which leads to more substance use.

  • Implications – Many people will use pot or alcohol as a means of feeling less lonely and dysregulated – though this can feel helpful in the start – the process can create a feedback loop which leads to exacerbated feelings of loneliness and dysregulation without the substance.
  • Solution – Emotionally significant/vulnerable and authentic connection. It is easier to use electronics or to engage in a substance than it is to be vulnerable enough to share your true self with another person. It is hard to remain open, empathetic and compassionate in front of a person who is suffering or who is offering their authentic self in a way that we don’t yet understand (Our impulse is generally to fix or to categorize). When we grow in our ability to stay present, honest, openminded, and compassionate, we naturally dissipate feeling of loneliness… in turn we gain a felt sense of regulation (and we, therefore, are not in need of the vice to mitigate our fears).

Anthropological Importance of Inclusion – We are a tribal animal. Our cortex developed to its’ current sophisticated state in response to the need to track an ever-increasing amount of social information (currently we max out at about 200 people). Exclusion from the group generally resulted in death for the vast majority of human existence – we tracked information to ensure inclusion (and to track ‘unsafe’ people). This reality has created a substantial fear response related to exclusion – this fear will propel us to make poor decisions to mitigate our fear.

  • Implications – We will often compromise our beliefs, emotional needs, intuition, and ration in order to protect ourselves from the fear associated with exclusion – this can mean that it feels terrifying to be without social media or to ‘just say no’ when the dominant group is engaging in unsafe behavior.


  • Solutions – Create emotionally intelligent communities that promote acceptance of differences and encourage open-minded and vulnerable communication. Through a compassionate dialogue, we can create a sense of culture which is best suited to the needs of the individual and the collective. Within this space of openness and acceptance, we reduce judgment and make it safe to express differences (therefore the culture will be inclusive of people who avoid behaviors that are harmful, though ‘normal’.

Faced paced society with ever increasing stimuli, social dynamics, and expectations with a corresponding reduction of health-promoting options – Currently, our society is not set up to be optimal for our psychological health. We are over inundated with stimuli, we lack sleep, we are responsible for monitoring more social dynamics than is possible, we lack access to nature, there is less access to arts and athletics, we are constantly encouraged to think about the future as opposed to the present moment, and we are often held to unrealistic expectations (such as the average workweek for an adult).

  • Implications – Often it can feel like the only way to ‘deal’ with our life is to disassociate from it, avoid it, repress it, or escape from it. Many electronics help us to completely leave (disassociate) from our current reality. Many substances produce a feeling similar to a state of mindfulness – you are absorbed in the present moment and free from the suffering found by attending to the past or the future. Lastly, many substances give us the permission to be who we want to be – inhibition. Both electronics and substances help us to deal with our anxiety resulting from feelings overstimulated, unrested, unfulfilled, and over-extended.
  • Solution – Intentionality and authentic prioritizing our life choices and values. We can enact intentionality and discipline so as to live within a set of values that promote our well-being.  health diet, appropriate boundaries, authentic expression, secure relationships, exercise, and access to nature are vital for our psychological well-being – these should not be compromised if we have the privilege to not be oppressed from accessing them (many, if not most, people in our world are oppressed from access to these variables).

Variables Impacted by Addiction

Freedom and Self-Determination. Reduced Intentionality – Increased automaticity

  • Remember Pavlov and the salivating dog (rang a bell every time the dog was fed – led to the dog salivating by the bell – even when no food was present)? As humans, we are constantly conditioned to have predictable and automatic responses to certain stimuli (this is adaptive). We can, therefore, develop automatic (and often unconscious) emotional, biological, cognitive and behavioral responses to substances, electronics, and other vices.
  • Conditioning Targets the implicit system to create unconscious associations with the vice (drugs, electronics, alcohol, shopping etc).

Experience: you have a huge problem and there is nothing that you can do about it in the moment – what vice do you want?(sibling lost all their money and they are on their way to your house to live with you)

  • Anxiety = conditioned to have a strong desire (sensation and emotion) for vice – often followed by an automatic behavior to engage in vice
  • The teenage brain is already in a state of re-structuring – pre-frontal cortex (executive control center) is less integrated into brain functioning. (this is an important time for the development of intentionality and good habits).
  • Solutions –
    • Mindfulness – focused attention on the present moment. The ability to notice without judgment and without automatic reaction. With mindfulness, we can observe the stimulus and our mind and body’s desired reaction to the stimulus. With practice, the pre-frontal cortex can override the automatic behavior (though the automatic emotion will likely stay mostly the same).
    • Willpower to engage in life intentionally despite a strong impulse to avoid or otherwise retract from discomfort. (without self-determination we are controlled by the external world and our urges)

Emotions and Body Awareness. reduction of sensory and emotional experience along with a reduced ability to tolerate emotions or sensory experiences.

  • What sensations are experienced in an elevator with a stranger (what does it feel like in your body)What emotions do you have as a result? What behaviors are we likely to engage in?
    • Now imagine all the experiences that a teen is going through – Away from home, love interests, making friends, meeting expectations, and figuring out who they are
  • After you have looked at a screen for 5 minutes where is your consciousness?
    •       What effect might this have on emotional aptitudes such as empathy?
    • Electronics and substances often disassociate us from our body (and relationships).
  • We must learn to continually be aware of and to tolerate our emotional and somatic experiences to achieve our ambitions – substances and electronics can rob us of the ability to develop this capacity.

What normal aspects of everyday life require a high level of emotional awareness and tolerance? Public Speaking 😉 Creating an emotionally intimate relationship.

Attachment and inter-regulation through Human bonding

  • New research is finding that substances and electronics target the same area of our brain used for human attachment and bonding (bonding is a primary need like water (orphanage example & cast away example)— the pull is extreme)
  • We are a social animal, and through millions of years of evolution we have developed a very sophisticated system of bonding with other humans that radically improves our ability to survive – Human connection is the #1 predictor of happiness (slope of a hill appears less steep, reduced amygdala activation in FMRIs when shocked)
  • We need to help our teens to bond with each other, with us, with the community
  • Electronics and substances mimic the feeling we get from positive human connection BUT they do not lead to lasting happiness and they do no facilitate regulation (human bonding is the cure for stress).

Conclusion – Our goal is to mentor our community towards becoming Self-determined, Emotionally intelligent, and Relationally able people. This doesn’t need to be a moral argument – Drugs and Electronics are not intrinsically bad or good… Instead, let’s change the discussion to efficiency – what are the most efficient means of developing the above Aptitudes?

William Hambleton Bishop is a practicing therapist in Steamboat Springs Colorado.

Face your Suffering on your way towards Freedom and Balance | The Effects of Resistance


Often therapy is a place for people to face their unresolved issues so that they can move forward in their lives with feelings of inner and outer harmony.

Utilizing energy to “just get over it” suggests that there is something… a feeling… a string of thoughts … a felt sensation that is being denied resolution.

From our cultures we often learn that resistance is the ‘right’, ‘stong’, ‘mature’, ‘masculine’ and ‘rational’ thing to do when faced with difficult emotions (or differing opinion, beliefs, perceptions, customs etc.).

Resistance pushes us to view right and wrong dichotomously, it uses our strength for the process of denial, it inhibits our ability to mature towards acceptance, it manipulates our masculine energy to be rigid and less compassionate, and it inhibits our self-control and ability to choose to act in ways we label as rational.

Resistance restrains our freedom as we find ourselves being unconsciously controlled by that which we resist.

Projection – one of the major ways in which resistance affects our actions is projection. When you deny your suffering you are likely to project that suffering onto other people… you are likely to see your unresolved emotions in the faces of those around you. Example: If a person is repressing feeling foolish for trusting an unfaithful partner they might be highly critical of others who have spouses whom they perceive to be ‘flirty’.

Uncontrollable Anger – frightening outbursts of anger that in no way fit the disappointments of the environment are very often the result of unresolved emotions. Difficult experiences can leave us feeling sad, alone, confused, and lost in a meaningless chaos; when these feelings are left unattended to a person may go through their day in a haze of confused loneliness… when a difficulty arises, they react not only to the specific situation, but also to the pain that they carry for denying the emotions that weigh down their shoulders. We all have a threshold of difficult emotions that we can carry… when we are given another emotion when we are already full, we lose control. Energy is used to deny and repress… when we run out of energy some people will fall into a state of mammalian rage, attacking their environment in a misguided attempt to protect themselves from the emotions they no longer hold the strength to deny. Example: a person feels inadequate for being cut from a sports team… they go home and their partner asks if the remembered to stop and get the milk (he did not remember)… the man goes into a frightening tirade about how the wife “makes him feel.”

Disassociation – People will ‘check out’ and there will be an inconsistency in the way that they are reacting to their environment. In a severe state of disassociation a person will not appear to even be awake… they will be lost in their internally created world (somewhat like a lucid dream) so as to avoid the way that the outer world makes them feel. In a moment of severe trauma, disassociation is possibly a useful adaptation… the person unconsciously knows that the experience is too overwhelming to integrate, so they leave their body. When we continue to deny the emotions that we hold, those emotions can persuade us into a disassociated state though there is not anything too severe in the present environment. Overcoming a trauma will help a person to act congruently with their environment. Ex. A disassociated person might be smiling while they are talking about attending their parent’s funeral… they are quite literally emotionally detached from the present moment.

Addiction – The process of resistance takes an immense amount of energy… it is extremely hard work to deny difficult emotions (ironically way more difficult than facing them). People often seek the assistance of an addiction to aid them in their process of denial. Addictions can numb and distract a person from their emotions… this feels especially good as it reduces the amount of energy a person must allocate to the resistance process. Examples: a person will seek out the comforting and nurturing feelings that accompany the consumption of high calorie foods when they are unable to access those feelings from people in the environment. A person will smoke pot to reduce the ruminating thoughts that surface as a result of unattended stress. A person will drink alcohol to forget about feeling hopeless about employment prospects.

Facing your emotions can look different for different people depending on the situation.

At times the held emotions are too confusing or unorganized and a person needs assistance in finding meaning.

Sometimes an emotion simply requires honest expression from the body… at times a person simply needs to cry to no longer be inhibited by a repressed emotion.

As social animals it is very important for us to feel understood and empathized for by another individual… being empathized for takes away feeling lonely, and can dramatically increase felt security.

Acceptance of an emotion emancipates a person.

A person is free to use their energy in the moment as opposed to using energy to repress their past.

A person is free to engage with their environment as it is in the moment as opposed to having the present moment unconsciously colored by unresolved emotions from the past.

To live in the present moment does not mean that you deny your past or offer inauthentic positivity to what you have experienced… to live in the present moment you must courageously accept your past… to look upon it with openness.

To find balance we must offer observance of all that is on the scale.

William Hambleton Bishop is a practicing therapist in Steamboat Springs Colorado.

Drink too much? Try being yourself in your life… choose to stop inhibiting yourself


Many people find themselves drinking significant amounts of alcohol to uninhibit themselves… there is a simple and perhaps strange question that doesn’t seem to be given enough space or attention surrounding our drinking culture… I am not arguing here that there are not indeed some rather positive benefits of overindulgence, and by looking at these positive benefits we can isolate a need that we might have for ourselves.

I like to walk with no shoes on… I love the feel of life on my feet… sometimes it’s less comfortable… but it is always more interesting… sometimes people look at me funny… my mind suggests that I ‘should’ put my shoes on… I smile at my minds attempt to inhibit my authentic self… and move on free and happy that I’m emancipated from the missed opportunities that arise from my judgmental mind.

Ready for the question?

“Why are you inhibiting yourself in your life? Why do you not allow yourself to be the person that you desire to be… the person that you are?”

This question brings many of us to our common defenses… rationalization, dismissal, avoidance, sarcasm etc… but why don’t we all just ponder this question for a minute.

If you drink to become uninhibited, then doesn’t that mean that your baseline state is a state of inhibition?

Of course the rationalist in you is saying, “Well if I was uninhibited then I would do some really inappropriate things.” The follow up question is, “if you truly believe that whatever actions you would partake in are ‘inappropriate’ then why is it ok to purposefully drink until you  are uninhibited enough to engage in that inappropriate behavior?”

Is it fair to suggest that part of you doesn’t think that many or most of the actions that you inhibit your sober self from engaging in are inappropriate? Who was it that wrote all these ironically unwritten social rules about how we should conduct ourselves?

Would we add a bit more health and moderation to our drinking culture if we all were less debilitated by the social ‘shoulds’ that we allow to constrain our authentic selves.

Why is it that we believe that some actions need to be inhibited while sober… now I’m not talking about all the harmful things that happen while people are drunk, I am talking about the harmless things like:

Dancing, singing, expressing emotions, offering honest opinions, belly laughing, smiling, talking to people, playing a game, doing nothing, being random, enjoying things, showing excitement, being thankful…

We are so afraid of other people judging us that we keep ourselves from being who we are… and so we drink and are no longer affected by their judgments… but wait a minute… that doesn’t seem to make sense.

Why would drinking keep other people from judging us?

The most judgmental person in our lives is our self.

Drinking shuts up that voice in your head that is constantly critiquing and comparing you with what it calls ‘norms’.

Drinking makes it easier for you to stop judging yourself.

Drinking is the justifiable excuse for you to stop judging yourself.

Do you need an excuse to stop allowing the judgments of your mind to inhibit your authentic self?

I want you to think of all the harmless best parts of being in an uninhibited state… write them down if you like.

Now the next time you are craving an action that your mind inhibits your from engaging in I want you to take a minute… take a deep breath… focus on this voice in your mind telling you what you “should” do… smile at this voice… understand its desires and intentions… this voice believes that inhibition will make you normal and happy… you don’t truly believe this voice so you try and drink it away… choose to be yourself instead… you don’t need the drink… you control the voice just as you control the beverage you hold in your hand.

That voice in your head which judges you is the same voice in other people’s heads that will sometimes judge you if you allow yourself to be free.

Have empathy for these people who are captive to their “shoulds”… but do not allow their shoulds to inhibit your authentic happy self.

Dance, love, sing, meditate in public, ask strange questions, laugh at silly shapes, cry at commercials, skip, jump for the clouds, and howl like a wolf… you don’t need a drink to do so… you simply need to give yourself permission to stop inhibiting yourself.

I won’t judge you if you laugh at the brilliance of being on tree line… I’ll laugh with you and add in a couple jump twists with moon burstin smiles.

William Hambleton Bishop is a practicing therapist in Steamboat Springs Colorado.

Weight loss – what does that food mean to you? Insight, reflection, and replacement in achieving weight loss goals.


Quick summary: I will discuss why certain foods seem or feel impossible to give up and offer a brief suggestion as to what you can do to overcome such an obstacle. Food (as with many other things in life) often has a symbolic importance which is more influential or otherwise important that the simple tangible object that it seems to be.


The theory is that insight into the unconscious drives related to a food can liberate a person to address those drives and the person therefore gains a degree of power over the automatic impulses related to that food.


Insight by itself in no way solves a problem related to eating unhealthy foods… in fact some research is suggesting that certain people are less likely to make a healthy food decision when nutritional information is offered to them in an attempt to encourage a more healthy choice.


  • the researches who found such evidence have suggested that our drive towards freewill trumps our desire to make the most intelligent or healthy decision… in short, when we are told to eat something because it is healthy, we often don’t want to comply simply because we perceive someone else as telling us what to do… we are more concerned with choosing our behavior than in taking suggestions which are in our best interest.


Insight into unconscious drives frees a person from a degree of automaticity.

  • An ability to reflect on an impulse is created thereby giving a person an opportunity to choose what behavior they will engage in. For many people insight into an impulse does not dissuade them from succumbing to the impulse.


What if you could find a more healthy replacement behavior to satiate the burning drive of that impulse?


Exercise to find insight about the hidden drives of the ‘impossible to give up’ food


Firstly I want you to list a food that you can hardly imagine not eating.


Symbolism – What does this food mean to you?


History – what is your history with this food?


Feeling – what is the desired feeling that you want to experience while eating this food?


Cognitive – what are some of the reasons that you tell yourself that encourage you to eat this food?


Importance – what are all the reason why you do not want to give up this food?

To reduce the amount of willpower that it will take to restrain yourself from this food it would be in your best interest to find a replacement means of attaining the above variables.


  • Example, if you are trying to feel that lazy, satiated, completely satisfied feeling is there another way of accomplishing this?
  • – for many people eating comfort foods is a way of attaining feeling similar to those acquired in a healthy adult sexual relationship.


With insight about the above variables you can free yourself to make appropriate decisions on a moment-by-moment basis.


  • Example, if your cognitive reason for eating the food is “that it doesn’t taste good without out it” ask yourself if this is always true or if it is more true in certain situations than in others.
  • – if you absolutely love cheese on your burger ask yourself if you would even taste the cheese if you already are getting three other toppings.


Make a decision before the impulse is present to avoid having to make a difficult choice when the food is begging for you to comply with its demands to be eaten.


  • Example, if there is a certain food that has a lot of meaning to you and your family then choose the best times to indulge and choose times where it is not necessary to indulge.
  • If you and your family love a huge greasy slice of lasagna have it when someone that knows how to make it is going to be serving it and make the decision to avoid it at cheep chain American restaurants.


“Do I really want this food or do I actually want something that this food is symbolic of?”


  • Example, sometimes it is best to find the symbolic importance of the food and meet your needs another way.
  • – if you associate eating BBQ with your father who you have not seen in a while perhaps sometimes it would be better to call your father than to over-indulge in BBQ.
  • – If you are longing to feel young again and eating pizza makes your feel young perhaps there is another way for you to achieve such a feeling.



The Best plan is moderation and not abstinence… giving up your favorite ‘not so healthy’ food is unnecessary and incredibly difficult…


How can you enjoy the food with more moderation and still meet the above needs adequately?

William Hambleton Bishop is a practicing therapist in Steamboat Springs Colorado.

Realistic Weight Loss Work Sheet – Keep what you love, substitute and add where you can, and remove the unimportant


Quick summary: When it comes to weight loss the tortoise wins and the rabbit ends up going the wrong way. Unrealistic eating plans get in the way of your weight loss goals (some even make things worse). If you are using too much personal restraint you may be setting yourself up to fail. This questionnaire will help you to create a reasonable plan to achieve an eating pattern that can be maintained for a lifetime. Moderation, Balance, and realistic expectations will help you find hope and wellness.


Complete these questions and bring them to a Nutritionist. (Complete the questions 10 times for each of the two categories = twenty total food dishes with all relevant components and sides.)

Favorite Food – Highly desired immensely Satisfying food (name the food that would require all of your will power to restrain yourself from eating). __________________.

  • Name all the individual components of the dish (ex. mayonnaise, cheddar, sourdough role, pepperoni, bacon etc.) ______________, ________________, ____________________, _______________, _________________, _______________,
  • Name all the sides that must accompany the dish to satisfy your desire (ex. Cole slaw, French fries, Ice tea, Pepsi etc.)_________________, ______________, _______________, ______________,
  • What is the benefit of eating this food to you? (delicious, family memories, emotional comfort, makes me feel good, cultural, tradition etc)


Moderate to low desire/satisfaction Food – The food that is not particularly good for you that you don’t have an unyielding desire for. (Name the unhealthy food that you eat which would not take much restraint to avoid.)

  • Name all the individual components of the dish (ex. mayonnaise, cheddar, sourdough role, pepperoni, bacon etc.) ______________, ________________, ____________________, _______________, _________________, _______________,
  • Name all the sides that generally accompany the dish (ex. Cole slaw, French fries, Ice tea, Pepsi etc.)
  • What is the benefit of eating this food to you? (convenient, quick, cultural, all there is, easy to make etc)


Fill this form out 10 times for Favorite Foods and 10 times for Moderate to low desire/satisfaction Foods.


Rank all of your Sides and components on a scale of 1 – 10 (10 being very important = no substitution is a reasonable option, and 1 being not important = you could use a healthy alternative or remove it all together).


Name all the healthy foods that you already enjoy.


Take your answers to a nutritionist and ask for guidance on how to create a reasonable eating plan. (Meaning the plan will be sustainable without requiring excessive personal restraint.)


  • You now have a list of important and not so important foods. It is reasonable to assume that your degree of self-control surrounding food will be related to this list.


  • Foods that have significant emotional importance to a person can be looked at with a therapist. This topic will be in a future blog.


  • Have your nutritionist suggest healthier alternatives or replacements to every component and side of the food that you listed above (ex. beef burger to turkey burger, White bread to wheat bread, pepperoni to Canadian bacon, three slices of cheese to one slice of cheese etc).


  • Go through the list with your nutritionist and mark down the replacements that you know will work for you, you know will not work for you, and those that you are willing to try.


  • Set yourself up for success… Success is based on being realistic with yourself often when a person fails at one part of their diet they will give up all together… if substituting ground beef with ground turkey will require immense restraint then avoid setting yourself up for failure.


  • For your favorite foods your number one goal is portion size control… if changing an ingredient dramatically impacts your satisfaction then do not change that ingredient.


  • Ask you nutritionist to help you create a reasonable eating schedule that will encourage a healthy metabolism.


  • Ask your nutritionist for tips on how to avoid overeating unhealthy favorite foods (ex. waiting ten minutes after you have finished half of your meal, drinking a pint of water before you begin eating, eating your salad or a fruit before you have your meal etc)


  • Finally have your nutritionist offer ways of including necessary healthy foods into your daily diet. Talk openly about which suggestion feel realistic to you. Encourage her to use as many of the foods that you already enjoy as possible.


  • Important – you must be honest with your nutritionist… if you think that a suggestion is too difficult consult with her on other options.


  • Allow yourself to be continually supported by the nutritionist… success often necessitates continuous involvement from a supportive professional in most situation in which the goal is fundamental change.


Note – Eating smaller portion more often is generally ideal and some research is suggesting that eating your ‘vice’ favorite food earlier in the day will help you to avoid overeating that food later in the day.

  • This is based on restraint theory research which suggests that the more you restrain yourself from something the more you desire that something and therefore the more likely you are to overindulge when your self-restraint eventually fails.


For realistic nutrition tips visit


You can do this in a way that doesn’t feel constantly painful.


Live and be healthy – these were never mutually exclusive


Click the Weight Loss button under Categories on the sidebar for more support in reaching your weight loss goals.

William Hambleton Bishop is a practicing therapist in Steamboat Springs Colorado.